Learning Progressions

  • Learning progressions should clearly articulate the subgoals of the ultimate learning goal.
    • They enable teachers and students to use formative assessment to locate the students' current learning on the continuum and to identify the next steps.

Learning Goals

  • Learning goals and criteria for success should be clearly identified and communicated to students.
    • This involves discussing the goals and criteria for success with students using terms they can understand and providing examples of how the criteria for success can be met.

Embedded in Instruction

  • Teachers should evoke evidence about learning during instruction using a variety of methods that result in adjustments to teaching and learning.

Descriptive Feedback

  • Students should be provided with specific feedback that is linked to the intended instructional outcomes and criteria for success.
    • This feedback identifies the gap between current learning status and desired goals at a level of detail to stimulate action by teachers and students for improvements in learning.
    • Descriptive feedback should focus on enhancing student learning without assigning grades or scores.


  • A classroom culture in which teachers and students are partners in learning should be established.
    • This involves ongoing interactions between teachers and students regarding learning goals, outcomes, achievements, and adjustments in learning activities.
    • Students engage in self-assessment about how their learning is progressing toward desired goals. They are active agents in learning, working with teachers to close the gap between current learning status and desired goal.

Self- and Peer-Assessment

  • Both self- and peer-assessment are important.
    • In self-assessment, students monitor their own learning using established criteria that indicate what a successful performance looks like, and they adapt their learning in order to achieve success.
    • In peer-assessment, students analyze each other's performance using established criteria and provide descriptive feedback to each other for continued improvement.